The Risk of Subclinical Breast Cancer–Related Lymphedema by the Extent of Axillary Surgery and Regional Node Irradiation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The lower triggering rates with BIS and its better discrimination of the risk of sBCRL by receipt and type of RNI compared with TM support its use for post treatment surveillance to detect sBCRL and to initiate early intervention. The risk of sBCRL increased with more extensive axillary treatment. Patients having ALND or extensive RNI require close surveillance for BCRL. Longer follow-up is required to determine rates of progression to clinical lymphedema.