Weyer, S., et al.

Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as a fluid management system in heart failure.

Peripheral edema could be detected with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90%. BIS presents the possibility of an automatic decision making process to detect an upcoming edema, as an early indicator of worsening of a HF condition. BIS can detect and follow changes in lung impedance in patients and is sensitive to ECF volume. Since most patients with acute HF suffer not only from pulmonary edema but also from edema in the limbs, a combination of different segmental BIS measurements offers the best option to manage the course of disease.
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