The discrimination of healthy subjects from patients with heart failure on the basis of the ECF/ICF ratio of the legs is especially impressive, since there is little overlap between the groups (Fig. 8) and since part of the patients was on diuretics and had little or no visible or palpable edema. This parameter alone could become helpful for the diagnosis and management of CHF in the future.
Skrabal, F., et al., Adding “hemodynamic and fluid leads” to the ECG. Part I: the electrical estimation of BNP, chronic heart failure (CHF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) accumulation. Med Eng Phys, 2014. 36(7): p. 896-904; discussion 896.